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Copyright 2021 by Richard O. Aichele - email - and Information Works Inc.


A   Source  of  Technical,  Historical   And Environmental  Information.


Return To The Western Front -

Now Peaceful - But Not 50 Years Earlier


wrap text around image This veteran returned to visit World War 1 Western Front battlefields in peacetime where 50 years earlier he served for three years and was wounded.

He thought about the French, German, British, Australian, Canadian, American and others who fought there. Abandoned forts, remains of trenches, many soldiers' cemeteries and monuments to the missing in action still remain.

He walked the now quiet battlefields where millions died and often quietly asked, "And for what?"


The Great War  At Sea

wrap text around imageTurkey's defeat of the British and French navies in the Dardanelles and the German and British naval battles at Coronel, the Falkland Islands and Dogger Bank were important Great War strategic naval events. The two day battle of Jutland with 261 warships ended in stalemate.    The bravery of the sailors was never in doubt   but thousands of sailors' lives were lost in part by poor planning at high levels. Some sunken warships have been located and 105 years later are still answering many historical questions.


Ships   -   Ocean Liners

The 20th Century's ocean liners were built to sail the world's oceans in all weather and sea conditions. Incidents were rare but for the Stockholm, the Andrea Doria and the Titanic, days and hours of routine duty on the ship bridges ended suddenly and made history.

The ocean liners featured state-of-the-art technologies and evolving styles for all passengers shown in the detailed internal drawing of the Queen Mary.. The American liner United States, the French Normandie and Ile de France, the German Europa and Amerika, the British Queen Mary and Titanic, and the Italian Andrea Doria were fine examples of travel in 1st, 2nd or 3rd Class.


Ships -  Steamboats

"S-t-e-a-m-boat     A-Comin !"

The American steamboat invented in 1807 changed the lives of Americans. Towns and cities along the rivers grew because of steamboat service. The sights and sounds of steamboat machinery and steamboats themselves such as the Delta Queen, Alexander Hamilton, Mary Powell, Natchez, and Eureka were unforgetable

Some steamboats continue to sail and be enjoyed on lakes and rivers such as the Minne-Ha-Ha in New York State.


America's Inland Waters

The vessels on America's coastal waters, inland rivers and lakes changed everyone's lives. Great Lakes passenger steamships such as the Put-In-Bay created an American cruise industry on the Great Lakes. River steamboats are still famous especially the Mississippi boats. They all represented the latest technologies and ship building skills plus an overview of America's changing lifestyles. Some names are remembered: Delta Queen, Edmund Fitzgerald or the Hendrick Hudson and stir memories. Sail with us.


Preventing Ocean Pollution

wrap text around image Thousands of ships sank in U.S. coastal waters in the past 80 years. NOAA's Under Sea Threats Programs known as RUST and RULET administered by the U.S. Coast Guard identified them and watch for delayed pollution. One example: The recent recovery in 2019 of 450,000 gallons of oil from the wreck of a sunken ship torpedoed 1942 off Long Island, New York averted a major ocean oil spill.




The Great War.    It Changed The World


Four  British  Warships  Doomed

At Jutland By Designs and Procedures

wrap text around imageA Technical Viewpoint. Four major British war ships exploded and sank killing thousands of their sailors during the Jutland battle. The probable causes were later determined based on survivors' memories, observations by crews on nearby ships and reviews of documents. The designs of the ship gun turrets and the unsafe explosive shell propellant handling procedures had combined to create the disasters. It could have been avoided.


Clash of  the  Battle  Cruisers

Battle of Jutland -    - Skagerrakschlacht

wrap text around imageThe fierce World War 1 sea battle of Jutland involved 261 ships from the British and German navies. The newer powerful battle cruisers bore the brunt of the battle.

As several of the British battle cruisers exploded suddenly and sank, British Vice Admiral David Beatty remarked:

"There Is Something Wrong With Our Bloody Ships Today.".


War in the Trenches

wrap text around imageAt Gallipoli, Turkey and from the English Channel coast in Belgium and France to Switzerland, miles of trenches increasingly were the battlefields of the Great War 1914 to 1918.

Millions of soldiers serving under the French, German, British, Australian, Canadian, Turkish, United States and other national flags experienced the mud, snow, life and death of the trenches. The history of their sacrifices have been kept alive with preserved diaries, wartime documents, memories, stories, maps and photos.


Soldiers Guns Fell Silent Christmas Eve 1914

wrap text around image World War One was 146 days old when a number of German, French and British ordinary soldiers maning the trenches on the Western Front recognized the futility of man against machine guns and high explosive shells. On Christmas Eve, the traditional time of peace and good will to others, the guns in some areas fell silent. They were replaced by the sounds of Christmas songs in French, German and English. The soldiers peacefully walked into No-Mans Land and celebrated with those other soldiers.


Remembering The Missing In Action

wrap text around image Millions of men during the Great War were sent to the Western Front battlefields. Hundreds of thousands of those soldiers completely disappeared. One incident: A French trench collapsed instantaneously leaving only the soldiers' rifle barrels protruding and it became the Trench of the Bayonets memorial." This Remembering the Missing website commemorates all missing and the continuing search for all still missing in action.



Interstellar    Space Travellers


Space Visitors To Earth

     Is it possible?

        The current and historical evidence is impressive.

Military and civilian pilots worldwide have had encounters with unknown hypersonic speed extraterrestrial crafts.   The Belgian UFO Storm.  Planet Arcturus only 37 Light Years from earth may have life.   Kepler telescope found a "Bewildering variety" of possible alien worlds throughout the Milky Way."   UFOs create and use artificial fields gravity.   New evidence of an Earth-like alien planet around Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our sun.

One Scientist's quote: "We have been helped by the people of other worlds."


Railway    Infrastructures


High Speed Rail  -  Modern Passenger Trains

High Speed Rail passenger trains, HSR, now carry millions of people at speeds up to 220 MPH comfortably and conveniently.

China, Japan and Europe continue to create innovative HSR technologies and lead the field of environmentally friendly efficient passenger rail transportation networks.

In the United States, modern passenger rail transportation including HSR remains under invested, under developed and under promoted.


Farewell  to  Europe's  Steam  Railroads

European railroad steam locomotive power was phasing out in the 1960s and these photos document some of the remaining steam power in 1972 based in the City of Tübingen, Germany. Operating steam locomotives are history with the exception of those preserved for museums and for special trains.

Enjoy the Video of two operating steam locomotives with a special train on the famous 2.5 percent Schiefe Ebene grade as they passed.


America's  Railroads

wrap text around image Railroads served the growing nation. Passengers traveled everwhere with great service. Among the famous railroad names was the Pullman Company, the 20th Century Limited, the Super Chief, the Broadway Limited, the City of New Orleans plus local trains that reached thousands of towns and cities.

Railroad technologies with powerful steam, diesel or electric locomotives allowed comfortable, safe passenger trains across the country. All aboard !


100 Years Ago - Building A Underwater Rail Tunnel

wrap text around image The first railroad tunnels under the Hudson River were completed in 1908 and are still in service. Known to riders as the Hudson Tubes for the first fifty years and one of the first mass transit projects connecting New Jersey and New York City they remain a story of innovations, dedication, failures and finally the total success.




Ship Technologies

Marine technologies continually advance meeting the challenges of greater operating efficiencies and environmental compliance. Curent subjects:

   Grand Princess in Shipyard Refurbishment

   System Upgrades for Trim Optimization

   Propulsion Pods Technologies


20th Century Art and  Innovations

The 20th Century was a dynamic era and that period's artifacts are increasingly valuable and collectible. Among them are paintings and print art that emphasized 20th Century historical events, technical innovations and changing lifestyles including travel. These maritime art prints of the S.S. Dixie, S.S. Aquitania, S.S. Mauritania and S.S. St. Louis once hung in New York City travel agencies. Railroad art shown on timetables, calendars and advertising promoted the comfort and speed of the 20th Century's Pullman and railroad passenger trains throughout the country.

Click for Vintage  Art and  Innovations   Enlarged Views and More Details


mauritania ww1last vision schedules
pullman dining car gnoval

Railroad Dining Cars offered fine food and beverage services. Each railroad had produced their own unique meal service china such as the Pullman Company's Indian Tree pattern (left) or the Great Northern's scenic pattern (right). Today, all are hard to find collectible items.

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Copyright 2021. Website by Richard O. Aichele

Historical & Technical Research and Publishing


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